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Source of battery

[11/26/2018 4:43:41 PM]


One day in 1780, when the Italian anatomist Galvani was doing frog anatomy, he held different metal instruments in his hands and accidentally touched the frog's thighs at the same time. The muscles of the frog's legs immediately twitched as if they were subjected to current. The stimuli, but only use a metal device to touch the frog, but there is no such reaction. Galvani believes that this phenomenon occurs because of a kind of electricity generated inside the animal's body, which he calls "bioelectricity." In 1791, Galvani wrote the results of this experiment and published it in the academic world.

The discovery of Galvani has aroused great interest among physicists, who are competing to repeat the experiment of sputum in an attempt to find a way to generate electricity. The Italian physicist Volt said after several experiments: Galvani's " The theory of bioelectricity is not correct. The reason why the muscles of the frog can produce electricity is probably that some kind of liquid in the muscle is working. To demonstrate his point of view, Volt immersed two different metal sheets in various solutions for testing. As a result, it was found that as long as one of the two metal sheets chemically reacted with the solution, current could be generated between the metal sheets.

In 1799, Volt dipped a zinc plate and a silver plate in salt water and found that there was current flowing through the wires connecting the two metals. Therefore, he flattened a lot of flax or paper soaked in salt water between the zinc sheets and the silver sheets. When you touch both ends by hand, you will feel strong current stimulation. In this way, Volt succeeded in making the world's first battery, the "Volt Stack." This "volt stack" is actually a battery pack in series. It became the power source for early electrical experiments and telegraph machines.

The Italian physicist Volta repeatedly repeated the experiment of Galvani. As a physicist, his focus is on the two metals, not on the frog's nerves. For the phenomenon of frog leg twitching discovered by Galvani, he thought it might be related to electricity, but he believed that there was no electricity in the muscles and nerves of the frog. He thought that the flow of electricity might be caused by two different metals touching each other. Produced, regardless of whether the metal is in contact with an active or dead animal. Experiments have shown that as long as the two metal sheets are separated by salt or alkaline water (even if it is wet), hard paper, burlap, leather or other sponge-like things (he thinks this is necessary for the experiment to be successful). ), and the two metal pieces are connected by a metal wire, and there is current flowing through the muscles of the frog. This means that electricity is not produced from the tissues of the frog. The role of the frog legs is only equivalent to a very sensitive electroscope.

In 1836, Daniel of the United Kingdom improved the "Volta". He used dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte to solve the problem of battery polarization, and produced the first zinc-copper battery that was not polarized and could maintain a balanced current, also known as "denier battery." Since then, there have been "Bunsen Battery" and "Grove Battery" with better depolarization effects. However, these batteries all have the problem that the voltage decreases with the use of time.

In 1860, France's Plante invented a battery that used lead as an electrode. The unique feature of this type of battery is that when the battery is used for a period of time to drop the voltage, it can be reversed to cause the battery voltage to rise. Because this battery can be recharged, it can be used repeatedly, so it is called "battery".

However, no matter which kind of battery needs to fill the liquid between the two metal plates, the handling is very inconvenient, especially the liquid used in the battery is sulfuric acid, which is dangerous when moving.

In 1887, the Englishman Hellerson invented the earliest dry battery. The electrolyte of the dry battery is paste-like, does not leak, and is easy to carry, and thus has been widely used.

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